GEO 8 bilingual




Artesischer Brunnen

artesian well

The water of this well surfaces because of the natural pressure, not because of technical equipment like pumps.


permanent cultivation

Crops which are planted in the same area over many years (cocoa, tea, fruit, rubber,…)

Dritte Welt

3rd world

Name for the economically little developed states of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The name comes from a time when many countries became independent of the western industrialized countries and considered themselves a new major power in the world after the states of the east.



shifting cultivation

(shifting cultivation

with slash and burn)

Agricultural method in agricultural border areas. There is an irregular change between cultivating the land and using it not at all or only as pasture land. The years the land can be used for agriculture are usually fewer than the years it can’t be used.


crop rotation

The crop planted on a piece of land is rotated according to a certain scheme. This system keeps the soil from getting bad and keeps harmful insects/diseases away.


hypsometrical vegetation zones

Order in which the vegetation changes when the altitude increases. Normally temperature plays the most important role.

Informeller Sektor

informal sector

Economic sector which isn’t controlled by the state and which is therefore tax-free but also without social security. Child labour, drug dealing,… would be part of the informal sector.


(Gegenteil: Tages-


seasonal climate

( diurnal climate)

Climate in which the temperature differences between winter and summer are larger than the temperature differences between night and day ( diurnal climate)


Large scale migration from rural areas into the urban areas. It is usually caused by bad living conditions in the country.

Least Developed Countries (LDCs)


Countries with the lowest gross national product (< 100$ per head), the highest illiteracy (> 80%) and the smallest secondary sector (< 10%).



Growing of a city into a metropolis which is the political and cultural center of its surrounding regions. These cities are more important than other cities in the same country. Capitals and ports of developing countries have become metropolises fast.



Location in desert areas which has a rather good vegetation because there is water available. Depending on what source of water exists you talk about a river, well or ground water oasis


trade wind

Constantly blowing wind from the subtropical high pressure zone to the equatorial low pressure zone (=> ITC). The earth rotation causes a northeast direction in the northern and a southeast direction in the southern hemisphere.



Vegetation zone of the temporarily humid tropical climate, which consists of a mix of trees and grass. Depending on the duration of the wet seasons and dry seasons you have humid savannah (7-9,5 humid months), dry savannah (4- 7,5 humid months) or thorn savannah (2-4,5 humid months). The more rain you get, the better is the vegetation (larger trees, more grass)


- immerfeuchte T

- wechselfeuchte T.

- trockene Randtropen


  • constantly humid

  • partly humid

  • dry

Climatic region between 23,5° north (Tropic of Cancer) and south (Tropic of Capricorn) of the equator within which the sun is in the zenith twice a year. It is the region with diurnal climate, which means the temperature differences between night and day are higher than the differences between summer and winter. The average temperature in low areas is around 18°C. Depending on the amount of rain and the number of humid months per year you distinguish between constantly humid tropical climate, semi-humid/temporarily humid tropical climate and dry tropical climate.

Tropischer Regenwald

tropical rainforest

Forest of the constantly humid tropics, which needs > 1500/2000mm of rainfall per year and always around 25° C. It consists of 4-5 layers and a great variety of plants and is important for our global oxygen level.


vegetation zone

Region in which a certain climate causes a typical plant life (tropical rainforest: constantly humid tropical climate)


Ground saltification

Rising salt content at the ground surface, due to irrigation. Water solves minerals, which stay behind as the water evaporates again => salt crust. The quality of the soil gets worse and the land becomes useless for agriculture.

Nördlicher /Südlicher Wendekreis

Tropic of cancer

Tropic of Capricorn

Name of 23,5° northernmost and southernmost latitude. The sun is in the zenith above the Tropic of Cancer at the beginning of summer 21.6. (longest day in the northern hemisphere: summer solstice) and above the Tropic of Capricorn at the beginning of winter 21.12 (shortest day in the northern hemisphere: winter solstice). The sun is only in the zenith in regions between the two tropics. For someone watching the movement of the zenith it turns around at the 23,5° latitude. That is why the German name is Wendekreis.



Area in which plant life is almost or completely impossible because of certain conditions (lack of rain, low temperatures, high salt level, ….). In dry deserts you can distinguish between three types: rock desert: Hamada; gravel desert: Serir; sand desert: Erg)


zenithal rainfall

Rainfall within the equatorial low pressure zone, which start when the sun is at its highest point, the zenith.

Orientation: Rivers, Countries and landscapes of the covered regions